Seventy million year ago, our planet was inhabited by giant reptiles: gigantic lizards, colossal saurians, who slithered, swam and flew. Their reign lasted 100 million years, whereas, according to the most optimistic estimates, man has had barely six million years.
This indicates that these reptile species had to adapt and evolve over an enormously longer period of time than humans. Furthermore, pretending that they were an evolutionary failure is impossible: any creature that has existed for 100 million years must be deemed fully adapted.
However, only a few species that lived at the same time as those reptiles have survived, such as some crabs that haven’t altered in 300 million years. In reality, the enormous reptiles vanished altogether in less than a million years.
Why and how did this happen?
We can hardly claim that it was due to a change in temperature, because the oceans seldom change with the climate, and many of these reptiles lived in the oceans. It’s hard to think that a higher form of life could have wiped them off. This would have necessitated a large army, whose traces we would very surely have discovered.
One funny theory is that our mammalian ancestors may have eaten dinosaur eggs. But it’s just that: an entertaining theory; the ichthyosaurs laid their eggs in the seas, far away from their predators.
According to legend, the grasses changed and the new grasses were too harsh for the large reptiles to eat. A ludicrous theory: a huge variety of plant kinds survived, on which they could have easily subsisted.
The Galapagos gigantic tortoises, which piqued Darwin’s curiosity, did not perish from starvation.
It is possible to state that species age, get senile, and die. However, this is flawed logic: the maintenance of the genetic code precludes extinction of a species. Why haven’t animals like crabs and cockroaches, which have been around for hundreds of millions of years, grown senile as well?
None of these theories are true. But then something unexpected happened. So, what’s next? Two Soviet scientists, V. I. Krasovkii and I. S. Shlovsky, both eminent astrophysicists—especially the latter, who is the author of some extremely important works in astrophysics and radio astronomy, and it was Shlovsky who studied synchrotron radiation and showed that relatively rapid and extremely violent events can be produced at high energies—have proposed an ingenious hypothesis.
The two Soviet scientists propose that the dinosaurs died out as a result of a star explosion that happened at a reasonably close distance from our solar system: a supernova five or ten parsecs away that enhanced the intensity of space radiations. The English radio astronomer Hanbury Brown believes he has found evidence of a supernova explosion 50,000 years ago at a distance of barely 40 parsecs from the solar system, adding credence to this idea.
K. D. Terry of the University of Kansas and W. H. Tucker of Rice University, both of the United States, have recently conducted a quantitative analysis of the problem. They’ve witnessed stars that create such radiation bombardments when they burst.
The strength of the Earth’s magnetic field affects the effect of a bombardment. This field helps to shield us from cosmic particles by directing those with a magnetic charge away from us and driving them into orbit around our planet.
However, the strength of this magnetic field fluctuates.
It is currently on the decline and will reach a low point around the year 36 A.D. It’s conceivable that a catastrophic bombardment 70 million years ago coincided with a decrease in the Earth’s magnetic field, resulting in a wave of mutations that killed the dinosaurs and gave birth to man’s progenitors. According to Richter, an East German physicist, the bombardment came from the core of our galaxy and was extraordinarily powerful, despite the fact that it was created at such a great distance.
Even if we accept this idea, we still need to know what caused the enormous explosion. In 1957, during a presentation on French television, I first explained my reasoning.
I recall the commotion that followed, and I still believe my theory: that the stellar explosion that killed the dinosaurs was purposefully produced, with the goal of starting a long process of evolution that would eventually lead to intelligent life; that humans were created by incredibly strong creatures.
Knowing both the rules of physics and the laws of genetics, these creatures-who may really be termed gods-started a chain of events that will not end with man, but will continue until more gods, beings equal to their creators, emerge.
This is, without a doubt, a pretty daring hypothesis. We have, however, pondered about the existence of entities far more powerful than ourselves on several occasions. We’ve even provided quantifiable estimations of their technological capabilities.
The conversion of hydrogen to helium is the most powerful source of energy, which is demonized in the H-bomb. The quantity of hydrogen in the seas is huge right now, but the sun has much more. We can easily envisage creatures capable of collecting and utilizing hydrogen from the sun. Ci̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s of this sort are referred to as type III c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳ by theorists.
So, what happened to these c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳? Is it possible that they still exist in the universe?
This question is being answered positively by many brilliant brains. The idea that quasars and pulsars, hitherto unexplained astronomical phenomena, may represent indicators of life activity isn’t that far-fetched, according to Shlovsky. The Soviet scientist thinks that we should look for “miracles” in the sky, which he defines as events that cannot be explained merely by existing natural laws or imaginative extrapolations of those laws.
Among them, Shlovsky would include the odd behavior of Phobos, Mars’s satellite, which he believes might be an artificial construct; and the observation of a certain form of star, type R, which generates the short-lived element technetium, which does not exist in nature. The notion that sentient entities are blasting these type R stars with technetium to generate a signal has been raised by prominent scientists.
Other serious investigators—Carl Sagan, for example, believes that type III c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳ can modulate the electromagnetic emission of a star as easily as we modulate the electromagnetic emission of a transmitter of sounds and pictures—are currently investigating such signals under the direction of astrophysicists Kardaschev and Pschenko.
Because of the many static disturbances that influence the Earth’s atmosphere, this group argues that a radio observatory on the dark side of the moon will be required to detect these signals. In any event, their calculations have shown that using perfectly plausible methods of energy, messages may be transmitted up a distance of 13,000 parsecs—that is, a distance larger than the distance between ourselves and the galaxy’s core.
Freeman J. Dyson, a U.S. scientist, envisions an even more amazing “wonder” in the sky. He thinks that there are species capable of using all of the energy supplied by their star.
These beings must no longer inhabit planets, preferring instead to live in self-constructed artificial circles that completely round their star.
Other “miracles” in the sky, it appears, have been witnessed. Despite the fact that they are rarely addressed in scientific papers because to their spectacular nature, you may hear them discussed at astronomical conferences, over lunches, and in the halls.
For example, there has been discussion about some multiple star systems that may be made up of stars of varying ages; that is to say, stars that are bound together by intelligent activity.
As a result, we can see that the presence of entities far more powerful than ourselves in the cosmos is being considered a genuine possibility. Eminent scientists are working on a quantitative model for it.
We don’t have to add to the speculations. We should merely notice that the human form is not always to be despised. It’s probable that it’s one of the universe’s most stable kinds of intelligence. We don’t even use a tenth of our brains.
Our society is not without flaws. We have no clue what a c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳ would be like if people employed 100% of their mental potential. And, if such a civilisation exists among the stars, it is not unreasonable to assign to it powers similar to those of type III c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳.
Such a viewpoint appears to me to be more credible than all of science fiction’s innovations. But, whatever the case may be, my goal is not to research hypothetical a̳l̳i̳e̳n̳ forms, but rather what I perceive to be their manifestations.
The earliest of these expressions, in my opinion, may have resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs. Given that the Earth’s evolution had reached a stalemate, with no progress with giant reptiles in 50 million years, the Intelligences reversed the direction of evolution and established a new evolutionary goal, perhaps to increase the number of their “brothers in reason” (a term coined by the great Soviet mathematician Kolmogoroff). For the time being, we have no idea where it will go; nonetheless, it would be ridiculous to think that man as he is now was the goal they were seeking.
Perhaps the Intelligences will be obliged to exterminate our race, therefore starting a new cycle of events. This might be the result of a divine inspiration. The Intelligences, in any event, appear to be a far way from H. P. Lovecraft’s Great Old Men, who created life on Earth by accident or as a joke.
With this in mind, it’s worth noting that intelligent signals have been detected emanating from the astronomical object CT A 102. The wavelength of these signals has been predicted to be in the neighborhood of CT A 102, and it has been determined that they include the basic wavelength of the cosmos, interstellar hydrogen radiation.
Since that discovery, Prof. Gerald Feinberg of the New York Academy of Sciences has advanced the theory that these signals from the Intelligences are transmitted by particles known as tachyons, from the Greek word tachyon, which can travel faster than light in the void without contradicting Einstein’s theory.
When the technologies for watching and detecting tachyons are improved, we will very certainly get signals from other races whose development was sparked by the same star that wiped out the dinosaurs. And perhaps we will identify the Intelligences’ observation equipment, which are undoubtedly monitoring us in the same manner that microbe cultures are seen under a microscope.
Although we have some precise ideas about the energy sources the Intelligences might have used for their experiments—sources that are extensions of those we are using in our hydrogen and anti-matter bomb experiments—our understanding of genetics is still too hazy for us to imagine how directed mutations could be produced at a distance. To begin, we must understand how mutations may be guided.
A radiation with a very small wavelength or particles with a very high energy would have to be used to create guided mutations. Then, in the same manner that pictures are sent via a television channel, this broadcast would need to be modulated in order to transfer genetic traits on this modulation.
Calculations suggest that this is conceivable if extremely short waves in the gamma-ray spectrum are employed, or particles with a Broglie wavelength and short gammas.
Indeed, we may imagine a laboratory apparatus—for example, a laser—that is controlled to create the types of radiations that cause mutations. Our imaginations fail us when we try to conceive a mutation on the scale of a star, generated and manipulated by the Intelligences.
Trying to envision a laser would definitely be tough for a virus.
The beings that constructed and manipulated the star that annihilated the dinosaurs were true gods. They are most likely the same Intelligences that control the frequency of those celestial objects known as pulsars to a hundred billionth of a second, and the fact is that an increasing number of scientists are privately admitting that the pulsars are artificial, so many, in fact, that this hypothesis will almost certainly soon appear publicly in most official publications.
Having taken notice of this, we must acknowledge that most indicators of Intelligence activity must be eluding us for the time being. We will very certainly stay oblivious of highly important events that, if detected, would surely indicate the existence of other c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳, just as entire c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s̳ have lived without knowing about the radio or the existence of other solar systems.
It’s also feasible that completely ordinary events might be, without our knowledge, signs of intelligent activity. Two theories come to mind in this regard.
The late scientist and science-fiction writer John W. Campbell investigated cosmic particles, which are particles that come to us from space with extremely high amounts of energy, capable of exceeding 1011 electron volts. These particles are made up of common element groupings, ranging from hydrogen to iron.
However, this seemingly ordinary stuff is propelled at a breakneck pace, as if a portion of interstellar gas had been pushed to velocities approaching the speed of light. Although Fermi, Shlovsky, and many other scientists have proposed many theories, the mechanism that caused this acceleration remains unclear.
For his side, Campbell asserted that the cosmos is teeming with SP.aceships traveling at near-light speeds. We see a track – a wake – as these vehicles sweep interstellar gas in front of them, which is none other than the cosmic rays we’ve observed.
It is difficult to say that physicists have greeted Campbell’s idea with rapturous excitement. However, one American physicist, Robert Bussard, has proposed a model for an interstellar ship that would absorb interstellar gas through a scoop in the bow, obtain energy through fusion, and then use the products of the reactions, such as propulsion fluid, which would then be ejected through the stern.
Campbell was correct if the cosmos is full with spaceships connecting the stars. And it occurred to him so frequently that it was almost annoying.
We may even envision the enigmatic fluctuating objects known as pulsars as lighthouses leading these intergalactic spacecraft across space’s night.
Ekaterina Zouravleva, a Russian scientific writer, proposes a second possibility. We are continuously receiving messages from space, according to Ms. Zouravleva, signals that were transmitted before the dawn of humanity and certainly far before that.
The aurora borealis and aurora australis combine to form this signal (the northern and southern lights).
Whatever the truth or falsity of these two examples, the theories’ principles are undoubtedly sound, even if their writers take themselves a little too seriously.
In a conversation with friends, Shlovsky had occasion to observe that there are two types of hypotheses: the working hypothesis, which is intended to serve as a starting point for further research, and the conversational hypothesis, which is intended to pass the time between two meetings on the mathematics of interstellar plasma.
A working hypothesis is that humans are the product of a chain of mutations set off from the outside, while an operational hypothesis is that there are signals to be deciphered in the aurora borealis.
What additional solar systems, or at least stars with solar systems, may have been affected by the artificial source of energy that wiped out the dinosaurs?
We can locate five of them if we go a fair distance from our solar system, such as 15 light years: Alpha Centauri, Epsilon Eridani, 61 Cygni A, Epsilon Indi, and Tau Celi.
Research will undoubtedly be carried out in the coming centuries to see if life exists in these systems: if it does, it will be interesting to see if this life is similar to ours, and if the rocks on the planets of these systems bear traces of a cosmic bombardment that occurred 70 million years ago on our scale. With such a second fix, we might then pinpoint in space the star that killed the dinosaurs, whether artificial or artificially managed.
Unfortunately, we are unlikely to find our “foulding” star unless we have such a cross-reference. We locate roughly 10 million stars within a distance of 1,000 light years, and it is now difficult to determine which of them may be the dead debris of an artificial star produced by the Intelligences.
Although the cosmos, not our solar system, was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs, the study of cosmic impacts on the galaxy is still in its infancy.
Numerical coincidences have been observed, which may or may not be coincidences. The frequency of the big glacial eras, for example, is about 250 million years, which corresponds to the rotation period of our solar system around the galactic center, which is about 230 million years.
In addition, researchers are attempting to calculate the frequency at which the core of our galaxy, which produces chain star explosions and disturbances about which we have only a hazy understanding, emits condensed matter sprays.
Unfortunately, we still have a long way to go in this research, but some intriguing findings are being made. It’s being contested, for example, whether chain star explosions are at the genesis of the enigmatic quasars, which are little larger than single stars but release as much energy as entire galaxies.
It is widely acknowledged that these quasars are entirely novel, and that it is now difficult to imagine a scientific explanation that might explain them.
Some experts believe that humanity will one day be able to comprehend and perhaps replicate the quasars’ energy source. This is one of the explanations for the enormous resources sucked up by institutions like CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research).
Personally, I believe that the H-bomb has already threatened humanity’s survival, and that research institutions that may put at our disposal incredible powers for which the human race is not yet prepared must be placed on hold. The A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ alchemists were absolutely correct in their belief that matter’s secrets must be guarded with zeal.
If Hitler had the capability of bursting a star in the same way as the Intelligences exploded the star that wiped out the dinosaurs, he would have done so without hesitation. As a result, I hope that research of extremely high energies fail for a long time, and that the authority to freely light and destroy stars is never handed to the military or politics.
We’ve already jumped 10 feet from TNT to the H-bomb. This means that a hydrogen bomb weighing one ton may release the same amount of energy as ten million tons of TNT. This is what we refer to as a 10-megaton bomb, and explosives of this size really exist.
A similar leap would take us from the energy of the H-bomb to the energy required to cause a star to explode. In other words, a progression akin to the one that took us from the TNT bomb to the H-bomb in 20 years would put intelligence power in our hands.
As a result, I hope that this evolution does not occur during the lifespan of existing humanity, which has already demonstrated its capabilities. However, it is foolish to think that this development will never occur in a universe that has lasted for at least 20 billion years.
Viruses developed into Intelligences somewhere in the cosmos. If the occurrence occurred several times, it is likely that the various Intelligences came into touch; as Teilhard de Chardin put it, “Everything that rises must converge.” Elso Barghoorn, a Harvard botanist, has proven that some bacteria existed on Earth three billion years ago.
It took this much time and the help of the Intelligences to get from these germs to humans, and even if it took 10 billion years for the Intelligences to arise spontaneously, that would only be half the universe’s visible age.
There is no known scientific evidence that contradicts ideas about the existence of the Intelligences. There is no longer any evidence to refute the likelihood that they intervened.
Perhaps they have put up a detection and observation satellite in our solar system that is none other than the enigmatic Phobos, Mars’s satellite. Perhaps a̳l̳i̳e̳n̳s have established the protective radiation bands that we are only now beginning to detect around the Earth. Perhaps…*THE END*